VISIONING STUDY FOR THE KURGALSKY NATURE RESERVE
The Kurgalsky regional nature reserve is a specially protected natural area located in the western part of Leningrad Region, within the limits of Ust-Luga and Kuzemkino rural settlements in Kingisepp district.

There are over 200 protected flora and fauna species in the Kurgalsky reserve and its habitat diversity is of international relevance.

A vast diversity of flora and fauna species, many of them red-listed, make the Kurgalsky reserve a truly unique natural site, a wetland ecosystem of international importance.

At the same time, the area is affected by a combination of anthropogenic, natural and anthropo-natural factors that put pressure on its biodiversity.


The Kurgalsky regional nature reserve is a specially protected natural area located in the western part of Leningrad Region, within the limits of Ust-Luga and Kuzemkino rural settlements in Kingisepp district.

There are over 200 protected flora and fauna species in the Kurgalsky reserve and its habitat diversity is of international relevance.

A vast diversity of flora and fauna species, many of them red-listed, make the Kurgalsky reserve a truly unique natural site, a wetland ecosystem of international importance.

At the same time, the area is affected by a combination of anthropogenic, natural and anthropo-natural factors that put pressure on its biodiversity.



The special value of the Kurgalsky reserve is underscored by the high level of diversity of floral and faunal species, many of which are included in the Federal or Regional Red Lists of protected species. The reserve enjoys international wetland status.




In order to mitigate and prevent threats to the biodiversity of the area, the Committee on Natural Resources of the Leningrad Region supported by Nord Stream 2 AG initiated the development of the Management Plan – a formal set of guidelines that establishes an action plan aimed at protecting the biodiversity of the Kurgalsky reserve.

The Visioning Study developed by Strelka KB experts will provide a basis for the Management Plan. The integrated document relies on comprehensive research to outline targeted biodiversity protection measures.

Strelka KB worked on the Visioning Study for the Kurgalsky reserve in cooperation with the Committee on Natural Resources of the Leningrad Region and the Leningrad Regional Directorate of Specially Protected Natural Areas, relying on data provided by the Department of Geography of Lomonosov Moscow State University, the Institute of Earth Sciences and the Centre for Sociological and Internet Research of Saint Petersburg State University, and Ecoproject CJSC environmental consultancy. Karres en Brands architects were also closely involved.
Nord Stream 2 sponsored and coordinated the development of the Visioning Study and the draft Management Plan for the Kurgalsky reserve, in line with its commitment to compliance with Performance Standard 6 of the International Financial Corporation Performance Standard 6 (Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Management of Living Natural Resources). The initiative is being implemented as part of the Biodiversity Action Plan, a long-term roadmap seeking to improve environmental sustainability and biodiversity values in the Kurgalsky reserve. The onshore section of the Nord Stream 2 pipeline crosses a section of 3.7km in the southern part of the reserve which is protected under the Ramsar and Helsinki Conventions, requiring measures to safeguard its unique ecological system and conserve biodiversity.
Strelka KB is a leading Russian company offering strategic consulting services in the field of urban development. Since 2013, Strelka KB helps cities develop their spaces, economies, management and technologies based on the demands of their residents. The company develops comprehensive solutions for improving mobility, ecology and sustainability of the urban environment and the quality and accessibility of housing. An important field of the company's work is conducting comprehensive spatial researches including natural territories.
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Nord Stream 2 is a planned pipeline through the Baltic Sea, which will transport natural gas over some 1,230 km from the world's largest gas reserves in Russia via the most efficient route to consumers in Europe. Nord Stream 2 will largely follow the route and technical concept of the successful Nord Stream Pipeline. The new pipeline will have the capacity to transport 55 billion cubic metres of gas per year, enough to supply 26 million European households. This secure supply of natural gas with its low CO2 emissions will also contribute to Europe's objective to have a more climate-friendly energy mix with gas substituting for coal in power generation and providing back-up for intermittent renewable sources of energy such as wind and solar power.
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The Committee for Natural Resources of the Leningrad Region is the body responsible for the management of the Kurgalsky reserve.
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Strelka KB is a leading Russian company offering strategic consulting services in the field of urban development. Since 2013, Strelka KB helps cities develop their spaces, economies, management and technologies based on the demands of their residents. The company develops comprehensive solutions for improving mobility, ecology and sustainability of the urban environment and the quality and accessibility of housing. An important field of the company's work is conducting comprehensive spatial researches including natural territories.
Nord Stream 2 is a planned pipeline through the Baltic Sea, which will transport natural gas over some 1,230 km from the world's largest gas reserves in Russia via the most efficient route to consumers in Europe. Nord Stream 2 will largely follow the route and technical concept of the successful Nord Stream Pipeline. The new pipeline will have the capacity to transport 55 billion cubic metres of gas per year, enough to supply 26 million European households. This secure supply of natural gas with its low CO2 emissions will also contribute to Europe's objective to have a more climate-friendly energy mix with gas substituting for coal in power generation and providing back-up for intermittent renewable sources of energy such as wind and solar power.
к. геогр.н., доцент географического факультета
д-р геогр.н., ведущий научный сотрудник географического факультета
DEVELOPMENT OF THE VISIONING STUDY FOR THE KURGALSKY RESERVE
In-depth desk and field research providing comprehensive insights into the distinctive characteristics, condition, and current use patterns of the reserve area.
Zoning plan
Biodiversity action plan
Monitoring programme
Stage 1
Stage 2
Stage 3
Stage 4
Comprehensive analytical study of the area
Integration of the findings into a comprehensive map that allows to identify the optimal management strategies from the perspective of conservation factors, condition, and current use patterns.
An outline of targeted measures to achieve biodiversity protection goals.
Setting up monitoring procedures to follow the developments in the Kurgalsky reserve and evaluate the efficiency of the actions taken.

GOALS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE VISIONING STUDY

The main goal of the Visioning Study for the Kurgalsky reserve and its future Management Plan is to enable the conservation of biodiversity at the species, population, and habitat level.

To this effect, Strelka KB experts proposed three key objectives:
Mitigate threats and promote environmental rehabilitation
The key focus of the future Management Plan is a programme aimed at reducing the negative impact of anthropogenic, natural and anthropo-natural factors that affect the reserve and its inhabitants. The Management Plan is also geared towards managing stressors and ecosystem restoration.
Prioritize nature conservation
over recreation
The Management Plan introduces an efficient policy to curb the environmentally damaging recreational activities in the reserve, promoting environmental education programmes and environment-friendly tourism as an alternative to uncontrolled recreation.
Raise awareness of biodiversity protection issues among the local communities and visitors
The Management Plan includes outreach programmes promoting environmental responsibility to raise awareness of the reserve's valuable and fragile ecosystem among visitors and local communities.
MITIGATE THREATS AND PROMOTE ENVIRONMENTAL REHABILITATION
The key focus of the future Management Plan is a programme aimed at reducing the negative impact of anthropogenic, natural and anthropo-natural factors that affect the reserve and its inhabitants. The Management Plan is also geared towards managing stressors and ecosystem restoration.
PRIORITIZE NATURE CONSERVATION OVER RECREATION
The Management Plan introduces an efficient policy to curb the environmentally damaging recreational activities in the reserve, promoting environmental education programmes and environment-friendly tourism as an alternative to uncontrolled recreation.
RAISE AWARENESS OF BIODIVERSITY PROTECTION ISSUES AMONG THE LOCAL COMMUNITIES AND VISITORS
The Management Plan includes outreach programmes promoting environmental responsibility to raise awareness of the reserve's valuable and fragile ecosystem among visitors and local communities.

COMPREHENSIVE ANALYTICAL STUDY OF THE KURGALSKY RESERVE

The comprehensive analytical study is based on desk and field research performed by Strelka KB experts in cooperation with the Institute of Earth Sciences of St. Petersburg State University, the Department of Geography of Lomonosov Moscow State University, and Ecoproject CJSC environmental consultancy. The findings will lay down the basis for biodiversity conservation and enhancement measures.

The analytical study provided comprehensive insights into the distinctive characteristics, condition, and current use patterns of the reserve area, identifying the most vulnerable and valuable areas.
>100
relevant articles and academic publications analyzed.
22 EXPERTS
in environmental science, geography, zoology and botany contributed to the research.
>180 HOURS
of field research spent in the reserve by Strelka KB experts.
>100
relevant articles and academic publications analyzed.
22 EXPERTS
in environmental science, geography, zoology and botany contributed to the research.
>180 HOURS
of field research spent in the reserve by Strelka KB experts.
HABITATS
FLORA AND FAUNA SPECIES
THREATS
HABITAT MAP
A habitat map is an integrated database of types, characteristics, and spatial distribution of the reserve's ecosystems.
PROTECTED SPECIES
An inventory of the reserve's protected species offered a comprehensive overview of its flora and fauna. Researchers confirmed the presence of 205 protected species of fungi, lichens, bryophytes, vascular plants, insects, fish, lampreys, birds and mammals.
THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY
The research allowed Strelka KB experts to compile an inventory of threats to the reserve's biodiversity, notably threats related to recreational and economic activities, biological threats as well as threats associated with global and external factors.
ABOUT THE METHODOLOGY
HABITAT MAP
A habitat map is an integrated database of types, characteristics, and spatial distribution of the reserve's ecosystems.

The habitat map provides a basis for an ecological zoning plan. It is also instrumental in assessing the vulnerability of various areas, identify the ones in need of environmental rehabilitation and pinpoint the most valuable natural systems, notably open coastal complexes, old-growth forests, and wetlands.

Mapping allowed to differentiate:
3600
individual habitats with specific patterns of biotic and abiotic factors
55
types of habitat, clustered up by distinctive features
4 CLASSES
classes of habitats, including forest habitats, wetland habitats, open meadow habitats, and impacted habitats
3600
individual habitats with specific patterns of biotic and abiotic factors
55
types of habitat, clustered up by distinctive features
4 CLASSES
classes of habitats, including forest habitats, wetland habitats, open meadow habitats, and impacted habitats
FOREST HABITATS
Natural forests: fir, pine, birch, alder, broadleaf and others, as well as artificial plantings like fir and pine culture.
WETLAND HABITATS
Wetland masses: peat bogs, transitional swamps and lowlands, differentiates by their plant life and structure of the pest layer.
OPEN HABITATS
Sea and lake shores of the peninsula, as well as several ponds that are not overgrown with bushes
IMPACTED HABITATS
Cut-down, pest-infected and fire-damaged forests, as well as wetlands and wetland forests that were dried in the 1970s-80s.
PROTECTED SPECIES
An inventory of the reserve's protected species offered a сomprehensive overview of its flora and fauna. Researchers found 205 protected species of fungi, lichens, bryophytes, vascular plants, insects, fish, lampreys, birds and mammals.

The conducted studies identified the most valuable terrestrial and aquatic areas. In combination with the habitat map, these findings offer a basis for zoning and spatial planning. To summarize, in the Kurgalsky nature reserve there are:
34
species listed in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation
186
species listed in the Red Data Book of the Leningrad Region
14
species included into the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
34
species listed in the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation
186
species listed in the Red Data Book of the Leningrad Region
14
species included into the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY
The research allowed Strelka KB experts to compile an inventory of threats to the reserve's biodiversity, notably threats related to recreational and economic activities, biological threats as well as threats associated with global and external factors.

In the short term, the most serious threats to the reserve's biodiversity come from uncontrolled recreation. ATV racing, bonfires and unauthorized camping are causing considerable damage to vulnerable areas of the reserve. The most obvious and serious consequences include littering, soil trampling, vegetation destruction, endangering protected species, and increased fire risks. In a mid-term perspective, biological threats such as forest diseases and pests (specifically the bark beetle and spruce polypore) also pose a hazard to the biodiversity of the area. Insects, fungi and diseases affect valuable old-growth forests. In the long term, global climate change and rising sea levels endanger pine forests and coastal habitats.

These findings were instrumental in developing a targeted biodiversity conservation and enhancement action plan.

The overall impacted area covers 15,500 hectares, including:

2260 HA
under threat from recreational and economic activities
2995 HA
under threat from biological factors
10300 HA
under threat from global and external factors
2260 HA
under threat from recreational and economic activities
2995 HA
under threat from biological factors
10300 HA
under threat from global and external factors
Plantings that died due to the spread of eight-toothed bark beetles and red rots
Plantings of declining age groups, potentially subject to damage from pests and dendropathogens
Non-organised recreation
Dunes damaged by ATV riding
Forest fire sites
Dried forests and wetlands
In-depth information about the methodology, materials used and research findings can be found in Part 1 of the Visioning Study (see P. 40).

Zoning Plan

The Zoning plan was developed on the basis of the findings of the comprehensive analytical study of the area. This tool can be instrumental in managing the reserve, identifying the most efficient action plans for specific sites, and monitoring the efficiency of the programme.
Based on the current use patterns and condition of the Kurgalsky nature reserve as well as the existing legal framework and the analysis of Russian and international best practices for zoning of protected areas, Strelka KB experts identified six zone types, each with its own specific set of measures to enhance and preserve biodiversity.
The Zoning plan was developed on the basis of the findings of the comprehensive analytical study of the area. This tool can be instrumental in managing the reserve, identifying the most efficient action plans for specific sites, and monitoring the efficiency of the programme.

Based on the current use patterns and condition of the Kurgalsky nature reserve as well as the existing legal framework and the analysis of Russian and international best practices for zoning of protected areas, Strelka KB experts identified six zone types, each with its own specific set of measures to enhance and preserve biodiversity.
LANDSCAPE ENVIRONMENTAL ZONING MAP
ZONES WITH A SPECIAL ECOLOGICAL FUNCTION
Total terrestrial area ≈ 725 ha Total marine area ≈ 10,660 ha

Coastal areas in the northern and northwestern parts of the Kurgalsky nature reserve and marine areas that provide grounds for colonial nesting and moulting of aquatic and semiaquatic birds. Access to valuable and vulnerable sites is restricted during specific periods in line with the protected natural areas regulations.
ZONES OF VULNERABLE AND RELATIVELY UNDISTURBED ECOSYSTEMS
Total area ≈ 10,755 ha

Valuable undisturbed areas are most prone to recreational impacts. The proposed line of action includes constant monitoring to prevent violations of the special protection regime.
ZONES OF VULNERABLE AREAS AND DAMAGED NATURAL COMPLEXES REQUIRING OF ECO-REHABILITATION
Total area: ≈ 1,960 ha

Areas affected by fires, pests, logging and uncontrolled recreation that require a strong action plan to restore damaged habitats and enhance biodiversity.
ZONES OF RELATIVELY UNDISTURBED NATURAL COMPLEXES OF LOW VULNERABILITY
Total area ≈ 8,177 ha

Protected sites with a relatively low vulnerability of soil cover and plant communities that potentially may be used for environmental education and development of educational trails.
BUFFER ZONES OF SETTLEMENTS WITH ESTABLISHED EXTENSIVE NATURAL RESOURCES USE
Total area ≈ 1170 ha

Habitats bordering on the nearby settlements and exposed to extensive use by the local residents. Buffer zones must be safeguarded and placed under condition monitoring to curb negative impacts. Notably, it is essential to prevent the expansion of invasive plants such as Sosnowsky's hogweed and Japanese knotweed.
ZONES OF RELATIVELY LOW VULNERABILITY AREAS WITH ESTABLISHED RECREATION
Total area ≈ 68 ha

Habitats of moderate or relatively low vulnerability to recreational impacts that lend themselves for potential and established environmentally friendly water-based recreation sites. Regular monitoring is required to contain visitors within the allowed areas and curb the negative impacts of their activities. Also included are the existing and potential water-based recreation sites, specifically land plots designated for recreational use in accordance with the Public cadastral map.
In-depth information about the methodology, materials used and research findings can be found in Part 4 of the Visioning Study (see P. 168).

BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND
Enhancement measures

A tailored action plan aimed at preservation and enhancement of biodiversity has been developed to cover all the diverse ecological zones of the Kurgalsky reserve.
SPECIAL PROTECTION AREAS
BIODIVERSITY
Environmental education
Measures to prevent violations of the special protection regime
The set of measures designed to reduce the negative impacts of economic and especially recreational use of the area includes preventing unauthorized driving on forest roads and paths, introducing navigation and information systems, waste management, area patrolling, and a fire prevention plan.
MEASURES TO PREVENT BIOLOGICAL THREATS AND RESTORE BIODIVERSITY
The set of measures aimed at restoring impacted habitats and enhancing species diversity includes supporting forest restoration, preventing outbreaks and spread of forest diseases as well as expansion of invasive species, and reintroducing extinct species, such as sturgeon and crawfish.
MEASURES TO CREATE ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION INFRASTRUCTURE
The set of measures aimed at preventing threats associated with the recreational use of the site involve containing visitors within relatively low vulnerability areas of established recreation. These steps will promote responsible environmental behaviour and facilitate environmental education activities, including educational trails, information centres, and potentially may be followed up by the creation of sustainable recreation sites.
Learn more about the biodiversity action plan
EVALUATING THE EFFICIENCY OF THE BIODIVERSITY ACTION PLAN
The Visioning Study for the Kurgalsky nature reserve provides for a phased approach to the implementation of proposed measures. The tasks at hand fall into two categories: the priority ones should be tackled at once while the next steps require further revisions and fine-tuning based on the evaluation of priority measures. Regular monitoring procedures will be set up for evaluation purposes.
Monitoring
Evaluation of intermediary outcomes
Updates and
fine-tuning
Stage 1
Stage 2
Stage 3
Stage 4
Implementation of priority measures
Next steps
Stage 5
PRIORITY MEASURES
CREATING ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION INFRASTRUCTURE
The short-term biodiversity conservation and enhancement measures are primarily aimed at mitigating threats related to recreational and economic activities. The action plan has a special focus on prevention of the special protection regime violations and promotion of responsible environmental behaviour facilitated by a basic environmental education infrastructure.
PREVENTING VIOLATIONS OF THE SPECIAL PROTECTION REGIME
24 boom barriers and 51 boulders or trenches to prevent visitors from driving on restricted roads and block forest roads leading to the most valuable and vulnerable sites of the Kurgalsky reserve.
23 information and navigation structures placed at the reserve entrances and next to popular waterfront sites to inform visitors about the rules and restrictions.
An increased forest guard staff to improve patrolling intensity in the most vulnerable areas of the reserve along with waterside recreational areas and high fire risk sites.
Two waste collection and storage points at the entrances located outside the reserve boundaries, namely next to the villages of Vybye and Bolshoye Kuzemkino.
Upgrade of existing firebreak bands and creation of new ones to improve fire safety, to be followed up by installation of fire detection cameras and fire stations.
24 boom barriers and 51 boulders or trenches to prevent visitors from driving on restricted roads and block forest roads leading to the most valuable and vulnerable sites of the Kurgalsky reserve.
23 information and navigation structures placed at the reserve entrances and next to popular waterfront sites to inform visitors about the rules and restrictions.
An increased forest guard staff to improve patrolling intensity in the most vulnerable areas of the reserve along with waterside recreational areas and high fire risk sites.
Two waste collection and storage points at the entrances located outside the reserve boundaries, namely next to the villages of Vybye and Bolshoye Kuzemkino.
Upgrade of existing firebreak bands and creation of new ones to improve fire safety, to be followed up by installation of fire detection cameras and fire stations.
PREVENTING BIOLOGICAL THREATS AND RESTORING BIODIVERSITY
Targeted forest restoration in areas affected by fires.
Forest pathology research in impacted areas as well as areas vulnerable to pests and forest diseases, including old-growth forests and reclaimed woodlands in the central part of the reserve.
Additional research to identify areas vulnerable to invasive species. Site-specific measures to prevent their spread in habitats bordering on the nearby settlements, on lake shores, and along the busiest roads.
Reintroducing crayfish to Lake Beloye and developing a strategy to reintroduce sturgeons to the Gulf of Finland.
Targeted forest restoration in areas affected by fires.
Forest pathology research in impacted areas as well as areas vulnerable to pests and forest diseases, including old-growth forests and reclaimed woodlands in the central part of the reserve.
Additional research to identify areas vulnerable to invasive species. Site-specific measures to prevent their spread in habitats bordering on the nearby settlements, on lake shores, and along the busiest roads.
Reintroducing crayfish to Lake Beloye and developing a strategy to reintroduce sturgeons to the Gulf of Finland.
Creation of environmental education infrastructure
Two information centres next to the main entrances of the reserve with a total area of ± 300 m2
Two environmental education trails with a total length of ± 16.9 km
Two information centres next to the main entrances of the reserve with a total area of ± 300 m2
Two environmental education trails with a total length of ± 16.9 km
INFORMATION CENTRES
Information centres located outside the reserve boundaries are designed to become places where visitors can learn about the value and vulnerability of the area, familiarize themselves with the guidelines on visiting specially protected natural areas, locate the available sustainable recreation sites and environmental education trails.

The information centres will be located at the main entrances of the reserve, next to the villages of Bolshoye Kuzemkino and Vybye. They will offer a range of supplementary services such as educational activities, permanent and temporary exhibitions, souvenir shops, bicycle and camping equipment rentals.

Potential info point site next to the village of Vybye
ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION TRAILS
The proposed environmental education trails with amenities including observation towers, viewing platforms, and rest areas will be located in the most accessible, already impacted recreational areas. They are designed to redirect user flows, promote responsible environmental behaviour, and offer a comfortable and insightful recreational experience.
Vybya River Valley and Luga Bay
Bolshoe Kuzemkino to Narva Bay
Length: 12.6 km
Type: walking and cycling
Main attractions: sand beaches of Narva Bay, heather pine forest, pine plantations, WWII fortifications, bird fauna.
Length: 4.3 km
Type: walking
Main attractions: heather pine forest, coastal aeolian landforms, lichen pine forest, reed thickets, beaches of Luga Bay, bird fauna.
NEXT STEPS IN CREATIng ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION INFRASTRUCTURE
The next steps will provide for the achievement of biodiversity conservation goals. They will be aimed at redirecting visitor flows, promoting environmental education, and creating sustainable organized recreational sites.
Additional environmental education trails
In the longer term, six additional environmental education trails could be created, subject to evaluation of the effectiveness of the priority measures. The proposed routes pass through areas that showcase the extraordinary diversity of the Kurgalsky reserve's natural system while being highly resistant to recreational impacts. This way they enable environmental education activities without causing damage to natural areas.
Organized recreation sites
Alongside additional environmental education trails, nine organized leisure spots could be created as part of the potential measures. This will help direct visitor flows to the areas less vulnerable to recreational pressure.
Additional environmental education trails
In the longer term, six additional environmental education trails could be created, subject to evaluation of the effectiveness of the priority measures. The proposed routes pass through areas that showcase the extraordinary diversity of the Kurgalsky reserve's natural system while being highly resistant to recreational impacts. This way they enable environmental education activities without causing damage to natural areas.
Organized recreation sites
Alongside additional environmental education trails, nine organized leisure spots could be created as part of the potential measures. This will help direct visitor flows to the areas less vulnerable to recreational pressure.

MONITORING AND EVALUATION OF THE PROPOSED ACTION PLAN

The monitoring system is an essential management tool aiming to keep track of the developments in the reserve's ecosystems at the level of species, populations, and habitats, evaluate the effectiveness of the measures proposed in the biodiversity conservation and enhancement action plan and provide a scientific framework to improve and update the next steps.

The system comprises four types of monitoring including an overall performance evaluation and specialized studies corresponding to the goals and objectives of the future Management Plan.
INTEGRATED MONITORING
The main goal of the integrated monitoring programme is to collect and analyze data on trends and developments at the level of natural systems and individual fauna and flora species in order to gain a comprehensive understanding of the biodiversity status in the Kurgalsky nature reserve.

Integrated monitoring is carried out within sample areas that are representative of the species and ecosystem diversity of the reserve.


4000 HA
Total of the sample areas of integrated monitoring, within which 70 monitoring plots will be chosen for detailed periodical surveying.
MONITORING OF DISTURBED
AND ENDANGERED AREAS
The primary task of this monitoring programme is to keep track of the positive and negative developments within the boundaries of disturbed and endangered areas. The studies record the progress of eco-rehabilitation in disturbed habitats as well as increased or decreased threats to their biodiversity.

The monitoring programme is instrumental in assessing the efficiency of the measures aimed at preventing biological threats and violations of the special protection regime. The findings of the studies contribute to updates and improvements in the action plan.
TOURIST ACTIVITY MONITORING
The primary task of monitoring tourist activity is to evaluate the effectiveness of the measures aimed at curbing the negative impact of recreational activities upon the reserve's natural systems.

The monitoring programme is set up to record variations in the number of special protection regime violations and the nature of traces left as well as to assess the demand for the proposed facilities and amenities.
Traditional water-based recreation sites
Forest roads
Environmental education trails
Buffer zones of the nearby settlements
Traditional water-based recreation sites
Forest roads
Environmental education trails
Buffer zones of the nearby settlements
Sociological monitoring
Sociological monitoring provides insights into the overall tourist traffic flow as well as its spatial distribution and assesses changes in visitor behaviour. The findings of sociological studies in combination with data on ecosystems impacted by uncontrolled recreation and information provided by tourist activity monitoring contribute to a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of the Management Plan.
Reserve entrances
Traditional recreation sites
Environmental education trails
Reserve entrances
Traditional recreation sites
Environmental education trails
The conservation of biodiversity in the reserve requires a consistent and systematic implementation of measures proposed in the Visioning Study as well as coordinated efforts of relevant agencies responsible for the management of the specially protected natural area.

Therefore, along with providing an efficient toolkit in the form of the biodiversity conservation and enhancement action plan and a relevant monitoring and evaluation programme, the future Management Plan will have to enable and facilitate the effective engagement of stakeholders responsible for its implementation.
The conservation of biodiversity in the reserve requires a consistent and systematic implementation of measures proposed in the Visioning Study as well as coordinated efforts of relevant agencies responsible for the management of the specially protected natural area.

Therefore, along with providing an efficient toolkit in the form of the biodiversity conservation and enhancement action plan and a relevant monitoring and evaluation programme, the future Management Plan will have to enable and facilitate the effective engagement of stakeholders responsible for its implementation.
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